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Amquel Plus, 5 gal.

AmQuel+ is a unique water conditioner providing actions needed for safe aquarium and pond keeping for fishes and invertebrates (snails, shrimp, coral reef animals, etc.) in fresh, brackish, and salt water AmQuel+ is nontoxic and saves on the need for as many water changes as would otherwise be required AmQuel+ removes 33 ppm (= 33 mg/L) of all chlorines including those chlorines in chloramines from the water. AmQuel+ removes/detoxifies all of the kinds of toxic nitrogen compounds in the water. AmQuel+ removes/detoxifies all forms of ammonia/ammonium/nitrites/nitrates from the water, including ammonia in chloramines. AmQuel+ because of its stability and reliability reduces the need for water quality tests for chlorine, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate. AmQuel+ removes/detoxifies toxic pheromones from the water. AmQuel+ does not affect the water's pH (acidity/basicity). AmQuel+ does not interfere with the beneficial nitrifying bacteria or their food sources. AmQuel+ does not interfere with the beneficial sludge-removing bacteria or their food sources AmQuel+ is completely amine-free. AmQuel+ is fully compatible with NovAqua+and is recommended for use together in aquarium and pond water keeping. AmQuel+ is safe to use with other water conditioners and organic herbal fish medications. AmQuel+ is not affected by filtration or activated carbon filters. Made in U.S.A. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AMQUEL+ AS THE PREMIER AMQUEL PRODUCT To avoid confusion it should be recognized that there are two products with the AmQuel?? name - the original AmQuel which Kordon has been providing since 1985, and the recently invented product AmQuel+ (also referred to as AmQuel Plus) which is based on a much improved new chemical formula. AmQuel+ is the latest development in state-of-the-art water conditioning technology and is far beyond what the original AmQuel product does. AmQuel+ does all that AmQuel does and a significant number of additional tasks as well. . PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AmQuel+ is a remarkable new discovery that is making fresh and saltwater aquarium and pond keeping much safer and simpler. It is doing this by safely detoxifying natural nitrogen compounds in the water, including nitrites and nitrates that before could not be effectively detoxified. Thereby, the use of AmQuel+ greatly reduces the need for continual water changes, and provides far better water conditions for fishes, aquatic invertebrates, and other life in fresh and salt water. AmQuel+ is useful for the beginners who are novices in knowing how to establish new aquariums and ponds through the first months, as well as for the advanced aquarists and pond keepers in their easily keeping water safe long term for fishes and other aquatic life. AmQuel+ (also referred to as AmQuel Plus) is a recent chemical invention with patents pending that has the extraordinary ability to make the "nitrogen cycle" (involving ammonium/ammonia/nitrites/nitrates) totally nontoxic in aquarium and pond keeping, without interfering with the cycle's process in any way, and without interfering with the beneficial bacteria that are involved with the cycle. Further, AmQuel+ detoxifies/removes all chlorine and chloramines added to the water by public water utilities and all of the toxic nitrogen compounds that can appear in aquarium and pond water over time, thereby making water changes less necessary, and providing a safer environment for fishes and aquatic life. One of the foremost benefits of using AmQuel+ in aquariums and ponds is in its total detoxification of all phases of the nitrogen cycle (see Kordon article Biological Filtration), while the cycle goes through to completion without any interferences to aquariums or ponds, to the nitrifying bacteria, or to the water filtration. Thereby, AmQuel+ makes aquarium and pond keeping easier, greatly aiding the aquarist and pond keeper. AmQuel+ reduces the problems with "new tank [and pond] syndrome," which in great part are caused by the nitrifying bacteria in the water. AmQuel+ makes biological filtration much safer by detoxifying its natural processes. AmQuel+ does all this without having to be removed, once it is put into the water. It remains totally nontoxic to aquatic life. AmQuel+ should be used for setting up aquariums or ponds, for water changes, overcrowded aquariums and ponds, the control of toxic nitrogen compounds commonly found in water while the nitrogen cycle is established...as well as afterwards as nitrogen compounds accumulate in the aquarium and pond water. Fresh water is a precious commodity and becoming in ever shorter supply. By using AmQuel+ fewer water changes are needed in aquarium and pond keeping, thereby conserving a valuable resource. For marine aquarists AmQuel+ greatly helps in decreasing the number of water changes needed, thereby saving on having to prepare sea salt mixes or natural sea water. FURTHER PURPOSES AND BENEFITS An immediate purpose for using AmQuel+ in treating tap water when water is added or water changes are made is to detoxify quickly all chlorine, and chloramines and its components (chlorine and ammonia), and to make the water safe for aquatic life free of these lethal toxins. (See in Kordon article "About Water Conditioners" the section on "What Are The Problems When Using Water Conditioners..." A primary purpose in using AmQuel+ in aquariums and ponds is to protect aquarium and pond fishes and invertebrates by quickly eliminating (actually detoxifying) the harmful components of the biological nitrogen cycle - ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates, without slowing the nitrogen cycle (see "Biological Filtration ") , or interfering with the beneficial bacteria involved, or depriving these bacteria of their food. AmQuel+ rapidly detoxifies toxic organics, which is very important in overcrowded aquariums and ponds where waste products from the fishes, etc., quickly collect. Another purpose of AmQuel+ is to detoxify nitrogen compounds that accumulate in the aquarium and pond water over time, including noxious pheromones released by fish and aquatic invertebrates to signal and repel each other. This is specially important for reducing the frequency of needed water changes. Many larger freshwater and saltwater aquarium fishes release toxic pheromones to establish territoriality and repel other fishes. This is particularly true in fresh water for larger cichlids, and for larger marine plectognath fishes (triggers, filefish, puffers, boxfish) in salt water. Among the benefits of AmQuel+ are that it is easy to use and equally effective in fresh and salt water. AmQuel+ does not affect the beneficial bacteria of the biological nitrogen cycle. AmQuel+ is compatible with all water conditioners and all Kordon non-chemical medications and other non-chemical medications on which it has been tested, including organic herbal medications, and with all aquatic life - including live rock and reef tank inhabitants. Other benefits are that AmQuel+ does not affect pH (acidity and alkalinity), and does not discolor the water. AmQuel+ has a long indefinite shelf life at full effectiveness that is expected to be many years. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ AmQuel+ - how it works, compared to regular AmQuel the complexes in AmQuel+ detoxify any chloramines, chlorines, and nitrogen compounds present in the water. AmQuel+ splits apart the chloramines (composed of chlorine and ammonia), detoxifies the chlorines in seconds and the ammonia within five minutes. AmQuel+ breaks the toxic nitrogen compounds in the water apart, gassing out their oxygen and hydrogen components out of the water into the air, and preventing the nitrogen compounds from recombining in toxic form. These compounds include all the ammonia/ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, pheromones, and all other toxic organic compounds for which there are no common names -- yet are important to detoxify to be harmless to fishes and other aquatic life. The nitrogen components are mostly detoxified within five minutes and the slight remainder is detoxified over the next 24 hours. The compounds now broken apart are in the detritus and transparently soluble in the water. They are consumed over time by the sewage-consuming bacteria and algae. --------------------------------------------------------------------- DOSAGE WITH LIQUID AMQUEL+ PRODUCTS Use measurements in proportion to a Standard Dose which is one teaspoonful (5 ml) per 10 gallons of fresh or salt water, or one liquid ounce (25 ml) per 60 gallons of water, or one cup (8 liquid ounces = 200 ml)) per 480 gallons of water, or one pint (16 liquid ounces = 400 ml) per 960 gallons of water. For other measurements estimate the amounts needed, such as 10 drops per gallon using a medicine dropper, or 1/4 teaspoon for 2.5 gallons of water. For further information see the Kordon article "Standard Dose For Liquid Treatments". When treating the water, the total volume of water should be treated per dose, not just the amount of water added. To control the toxic organic nitrogenous compounds of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate and other toxic organics that build up in aquariums and ponds from the excretion of body wastes by fishes, invertebrates, bacteria and other aquatic organisms, start with a standard dose (see definition above). This standard dose will remove (detoxify) at least 1.2 mg/L (= approx.1.2 ppm) of all ammonia compounds, at least 2.0 mg/L (=2.0 ppm) of nitrites, and at least 13 ppm (=13 mg/L) of nitrates. The use of one standard dose of AmQuel+ for the amount of water involved is recommended per 24 hour period during the first days for total or major water changes, and at least once a week for the entire water volume in regular use, whether water changes are made or not. The number of treatments to be made over time depends upon how crowded the water conditions are with fish and/or other aquatic life. The AmQuel+ will penetrate throughout the water, including the water in the gravel, sand, or other bottom material. If excess AmQuel+ is put in the water, it will remain active until chorines, chloramines, or nitrogen compounds appear in the water that it can detoxify. Water out of the tap from public water supplies contains up to 4 ppm = parts per million (= 4 mg/L) of chlorine, as per the U.S. EPA Environmental Protection Agency, and usually less than 1 ppm ammonia/ammonium. When chloramines are present, AmQuel+ breaks the chloramines bond apart, and one standard dose of AmQuel+ removes all the chlorine (it is capable of removing up to 33 ppm chlorine, and up to 1.2 ppm or more ammonia/ammonium). Therefore, only one dose is usually needed, and at most two doses, for removing all chloramines and their chlorine and ammonia components from all public water supplies. The removal of these compounds when dosing with AmQuel+ will happen mostly within five minutes, or slightly longer for ammonia in water with a higher pH above 7.5. The slight remainder, if any, of nitrogen compounds will be removed within 24 hours. It is important to understand that the amounts of organic compounds removed may vary with differing water conditions. The amounts indicated above are the minimums that AmQuel+ will detoxify, and what is removed may be up to several times to many times higher. For example, tests have shown that when ammonia and nitrite are negligible or absent from the water, a standard dose of AmQuel+ can detoxify/remove up to 85 ppm nitrates. In fact, when various toxic nitrogen compounds are in low amounts or absent, the AmQuel+ then concentrates on removing the remainder of nitrogen compounds present. If there are not sufficient toxic nitrogen compounds present, the AmQuel+ will remain dormant until they are present, and then will detoxify/remove them to the extent of its activity. AmQuel+ does not affect the pH (acidity/basicity) of the water. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE USE OF WATER TEST KITS WITH AMQUEL+ Many aquarists and pond keepers are used to using water test kits to see how much ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate are in the water. With AmQuel+ this is given a different perspective, because AmQuel+ contains ingredients that absolutely are going to take out at least 1.2 ppm ammonia/ammonium, 2.0 ppm nitrites, and 13 ppm nitrates. With successive uses these toxic nitrogen compounds are not going to be a problem in aquarium and pond keeping. Therefore, the need for using test kits in aquarium and pond keeping is really lessened, because the AmQuel+ can be depended upon. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DIRECTIONS FOR USE As a general rule, when using tap water in which chlorine and chloramines are present, but not nitrites, nitrates or other organics -- then it is safe to use the less expensive AmQuel. If there is the possibility of nitrites, nitrates and other toxic organics being involved in the water, then AmQuel+ is recommended. For aquariums and ponds add AmQuel+ to the water at the recommended dosages as described above. Since AmQuel+ rapidly spreads through the water, no special agitation is needed. Its action on chlorines will be in seconds. Most of the reactions on other nitrogen compounds in the water will be over the first five minutes, and the slight remainder will be detoxified over the next 24 hours. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE REMOVAL OF PHEROMONES FROM THE WATER One of the most remarkable capabilities of both AmQuel and AmQuel+ is in their detoxification/removal of pheromones (body odors) in the water, which are nitrogen compounds excreted by fishes and aquatic invertebrates. Fish communicate with their body odors to signal, warn, repel, and whatever else it is possible for them to communicate with their pheromones. This is a subject that has received appreciable research, and is important in fish behavior. In the confines of shipping containers, aquariums, and small ponds, the build up of pheromones can be harmful to fishes and other aquatic life. The regular use of AmQuel+ to keep pheromones under control is beneficial to the fishes and other aquatic life. THE REMOVAL OF OXYGEN FROM THE WATER There have been concerns about AmQuel+ taking oxygen out of the water. In its reaction immediately after being put in the water, AmQuel+ momentarily takes out of the water 0.3-0.4 ppm (parts per million, = milligrams per liter) of oxygen. In all aquarium and pond keeping with fish and other living organisms under satisfactory conditions this will not be a factor. It would only be of concern if the aquarium is way overcrowded. This concern usually happens when the aquarist has no aeration or is using a "waterfall" type of filter as the only water movement in the aquarium. In this case only a slight amount of oxygen is getting to the bottom of the aquarium. For all aquarium keeping abundant aeration and water movement is important. When only one dose of AmQuel+ is used at a time, there is not a problem in having a deficiency of oxygen in the water. Regular AmQuel does not affect the oxygen in the water. THE EFFECT OF AMQUEL+ ON RO REDOX POTENTIAL AND ORP OXYDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL For advanced aquarists measuring RO and ORP, it should be mentioned that with AmQuel+ temporarily removing 0.3-0.4 ppm oxygen in its initial reaction in the water in removing chlorines and detoxifying nitrogen compounds, RO and ORP is going to be temporarily lowered as well. This is not a problem unless the water conditions are far overcrowded with fishes and/or aquatic invertebrates, for which there should be ample aeration of the water. In tests done on the reaction of AmQuel+ on RO and ORP, it was found that the main response in lowering mV was found in the reaction of AmQuel+ to the chlorines in the water, and in new aquariums and ponds that lack nitrogen compounds in the water. Therefore, the extent of the reaction of AmQuel+ on RO and ORP depends on water quality, including with the acceleration of the reaction at higher water temperatures. In the tests done, it was found that AmQuel+ returned to satisfactory RO and ORP levels within hours, at least within 24-36 hours. FISH AND INVERTEBRATE SHIPPING AND HOLDING FOR SHIPMENT Most of the excretion by fishes and invertebrates is in the form of ammonia/ammonium. This can build up during shipment, being highly toxic in the form of ammonia. As soon as ammonia/ammonia is present, nitrifying bacteria in the water are turning these compounds into ever more toxic nitrites. When nitrites are formed, nitrifying bacteria in the water are turning them into nitrates. AmQuel+ can be used during shipment to detoxify completely these compounds, and is particularly important for shipments that are days in duration. Pheromones are particularly important when shipping fishes, because build up of the pheromones in the water caused by those fishes secreting toxic odors can and do kill fishes, including the ones releasing them into the water. The use of AmQuel or AmQuel+ in shipping has the added importance of detoxifying pheromones and making shipment of fishes possible that otherwise would not be practical. AmQuel+ is stronger than AmQuel in removing pheromones AmQuel or AmQuel+ and NovAqua+ should be added to tap water used for short-term shipping fish and invertebrates. For long-term shipping of more than several days AmQuel+ should be used with NovAqua+, because of the build up of toxic organics from excretion. NovAqua+ and AmQuel+, when used together in shipping, will reduce stress, osmotic and pH shock, probability of infection, and neutralize ammonia, chloramines, chlorine and heavy metals. When AmQuel+ is used with NovAqua+ it increases the protection by neutralizing ammonia/ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, and other organics. If the fish are crowded or prone to bump into or abrade each other, Kordon's Fish Protector (formerly PolyAqua) should be used in place of NovAqua+ in both the shipping water and the aquarium or holding tank after shipments are received. Fish Protector (formerly PolyAqua) should be used to handle abrasions, bruises, and frayed fins of fishes. FISH AND INVERTEBRATE FIELD COLLECTING When using water from natural conditions for field collecting, the use of AmQuel+ or AmQuel in holding water and shipping water will reduce stress in fishes and invertebrates due to nitrogen compounds and pheromones intoxication. If fish will be held for days in containers, AmQuel+ should be used, because it will remove (detoxify) nitrites and nitrates as well ammonia. In addition, Fish Protector (formerly PolyAqua) should be used in holding and shipping water for optimum protection against abrasions, bruises, and frayed fins in fishes -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- STABILITY So far as is known for this new formulation, AmQuel+ is stable indefinitely when stored in a cool, dark area away from heat and direct sunlight. AmQuel+ should be kept tightly closed when not in use. None have been found to go out of date. The odor that is in the AmQuel+ products does not interfere with the products stability, nor is it in any way toxic to fishes and other aquatic life. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- COMPATIBILITIES AmQuel+ is harmless to plants, fishes, invertebrates (including corals and sea anemones), and other aquatic life forms. This product is safe for use in aquariums and ponds and will not interfere with biological filtration or its bacteria. When AmQuel+ detoxifies ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, and other organic compounds, it breaks the links of molecules apart. The nitrifying bacteria do not know the difference and eat the parts, just as they would the whole original compounds. Where AmQuel+ is particularly useful is in its detoxification of all nitrates in the water. There are not sufficient bacteria in the aquarium (fresh or salt water) and pond water to do this. In the past the only way to get rid of nitrates from aquariums and ponds was by water changes. Now this can be done in a few minutes with AmQuel+. This leaves the main reason for making water changes (now needed less frequently) to replacing trace elements in the water. AmQuel+ is recommended to be used with Kordon's NovAqua+ because they mainly do different functions that collectively are needed in aquarium and pond keeping. NovAqua+ is most important for treating tap water that comes from public water utilities that has accumulated toxic metals from water pipes, and in providing health aids to the fishes and aquatic invertebrates. . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CONTRAINDICATIONS AmQuel+ should not be added to water containing active, therapeutic dosages of chemical dyes such as methylene blue, acriflavine, malachite green, potassium permanganate, iodine, and acriflavine, since AmQuel+ will interfere with their proper performance. Combining AmQuel+ with these dyes will not result in toxic chemical by-products. AmQuel+ can be useful in those instances when it is desirable to terminate a treatment with a chemical dye. This is especially useful with potassium permanganate (see Kordon's Permoxyn) because AmQuel+ (and AmQuel) remove instantly the activity of this dye and its coloring of the water. Care should be taken when using the AmQuel products in the presence of cotton. AmQuel+ and AmQuel may affect the dyes in a small number of certain types of cotton based fabrics. Use of AmQuel+ with organic herbal treatments: responding to inquiries about the use of AmQuel+ with Kordon naphthoquinone treatments Ich-Attack, Rid-Fungus, and Prevent-Ich, it is safe to use all organic herbal treatments with AmQuel+ without interference with each other. Also see above under Compatibilities. Compatibility of AmQuel+ with chemical medications in the water: since AmQuel+ diminishes or removes certain dyes, it can be used to end treatments that use chemical dyes in medications, such as those using potassium permanganate (Kordon's Permoxyn), malachite green, methylene blue, acriflavine, and iodine. It may take multiple doses for this to be accomplished. The advantage is that AmQuel+ can dilute or eliminate the staining by the dyes of silicone glass sealants, submerged objects, and water. Compatibility of AmQuel+ with water test kits: AmQuel+ is compatible to use with those water quality test kits on the market that are fully effective (see note below), except for the ammonia test kits that use Nessler reagents that read in shades of amber or yellow, and the oxygen test kits that use Winkler reagents. Residual AmQuel+ and its reaction products are incompatible with the Nessler and Winkler type reagents, resulting in false, high ammonia and low oxygen concentration readings. Ammonia test kits using Salicylate-type reagents (reading on a colorimetric scale from yellow to green to blue green) are appropriate for accurate test results. A notable exception for what appears to be a Salicylate-type test kit that should not be used with AmQuel+ is the API (Aquarium Pharmaceuticals) ammonia test kit. For reasons unknown to us, it is incompatible with AmQuel+. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOXICITY AmQuel+ is non-toxic when used as directed. Many hundreds of kinds of freshwater and marine fishes, aquatic invertebrates and plants have been exposed to multiple full doses of AmQuel+ during extended test periods and general use with no toxic effects. AmQuel+ does not reach toxic levels even in cases of accidental or purposeful overdosing. AmQuel+ is non-toxic to humans and no special precautions are necessary in handling this product. The main potential interference that AmQuel+ has in aquarium keeping is that in the first several minutes of use the chemical reactions involved absorb 0.3-0.4 ppm = parts per million (which is about the same as 0.3-0.4 mg/L milligrams per liter) oxygen from the water. Therefore, when using AmQuel+ be sure that there is plenty of aeration in the water. In way overcrowded aquariums this can be an adverse factor. However, under most conditions, this would only be a 5% or so temporary decrease in oxygen in the water for a few minutes, and would not be a factor. It is recommended in the instructions for AmQuel+, including on the bottles, "always allow a 24 hour period between single dose applications." The reason for this is that in overcrowded conditions where oxygen is in very short supply, there may be a problem with AmQuel+ removing 0.3-0.4 ppm oxygen from the water per standard dose and suffocating the fishes. This is a rare occurrence, but when it happens it is a real loss in fish keeping. Under most pond and aquarium conditions this is not a problem, even when fairly crowded with fishes. The few times that we have learned that AmQuel+ was of concern in removing oxygen was from aquarists who had considerably overcrowded tanks and were using a "waterfall" type filter as their sole aeration. Waterfall filters spill the water on the surface of the water. Such filters only aerate the top water layer and are not getting enough oxygen throughout the water. Waterfall filters do not circulate the water through the whole aquarium. The same is true for ponds with fishes, which can have a similar problem when water is distributed entirely by waterfall(s) into the pond. What is needed is additional aeration, such as from an air pump and air stone(s) (see Kordon Mist-Air tm air stones) situated near the bottom that move the water upwards from the bottom of the aquarium or pond toward the surface, carrying out carbon dioxide and bringing in oxygen. Or in ponds and larger aquariums a water pump can be used to circulate the water. Either of these will add needed circulation of the oxygen in the water throughout the aquarium and pond. AmQuel+ does not affect pH. (Regular AmQuel may during use temporarily lower pH moderately in water with a high pH, while AmQuel+ does not). Nor do AmQuel or AmQuel+ alter elements in the water such as minerals or hardness. Similarities: Both AmQuels break the chloramines apart that are put in the tap water by public water utilities, exposing the chlorines and ammonium/ammonia for removal. Both AmQuels remove all the chlorines from the water that would be added by municipal water utilities, with AmQuel+ removing far more -- 33 ppm chlorines if they are present. Both AmQuels remove ammonia/ammonium from the water, with AmQuel+ removing at least 1.2 ppm or more ammonia/ammonium per dose. Differences: While AmQuel removes a slight to moderate amount of some of the the toxic nitrogen compounds other than ammonia/ammonium, including amounts of nitrites and pheromones, AmQuel+ will per dose detoxify essentially most or all of the toxic nitrogen compounds naturally in the tap water and other water supplies as well as those being formed biologically. Subsequent doses will detoxify them all. Regular use of AmQuel+, such as in weekly doses, will control all the toxic nitrogen compounds in regular aquarium and pond keeping, including nitrates and pheromones. The purpose of AmQuel+ is to remove from the water the chlorines, break apart the chloramines, and detoxify all of the toxic nitrogen compounds, including ammonia/ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, pheromones, and other nitrogen compounds which have no common names. The nitrogen compounds come from tap water, other water sources, and excretion of fishes and other aquatic organisms. It is recommended to use AmQuel+ when adding new water, and weekly to remove the toxic nitrogen compounds that are continually building up in the water. If there is an excess of AmQuel+ in the water, it will remain dormant until the compounds that it removes enter the water, acting immediately to detoxify them. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The biggest problem that AmQuel+ has is that so many of the colorimetric water quality test kits on the market are low grade and useless. This did not matter as much before when there were not products that removed toxic nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates) from the water, as is now being done by AmQuel+. So there was no indication before, when test kits were not working properly. For most users, the assumption was that these tests were accurate, when in many instances they were not. But now, there are the comments from test-kit users who are not seeing their test kits recording what AmQuel+ is irreversibly detoxifying. Their first reaction is to blame the AmQuel+ product for not working, rather than realizing that its scientific-grade chemical reaction has to happen, no matter what the water conditions. The problem is in the quality of their test kits AmQuel+ is a professional product for which all production batches since the first one made years ago are still fully active in detoxifying chlorines and the toxic nitrogen compounds ammonia/ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, pheromones, etc. , to at least the extent indicated on its labels and descriptions. With 0.3-0.4 ppm (= 0.3-0.4 mg/L) or more oxygen in the water, AmQuel+ is going to remove at least the amounts of nitrogen compounds as indicated on the product labels and in the above account for AmQuel+. Usually it is going to be even more. Since such a low level of oxygen in the water is completely suffocating to fish and many other aquatic invertebrates, it means that under all normal water conditions --which by necessity will have appreciably more oxygen in the water -- there will be ample oxygen in the water for the fish and other aquatic life, as well as for AmQuel+ to fulfill its obligations in detoxifying nitrogen compounds in the water. Infoformation provided by Novalek

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